A pH electrode is a type of sensor that is used to measure the pH, or acidity, of a solution. It consists of a glass bulb or probe that is coated with a thin layer of a substance called a membrane, which is sensitive to hydrogen ions. The electrode is connected to a device called a pH meter, which measures the electrical potential (voltage) between the electrode and a reference electrode.
The pH of a solution is a measure of its acidity or basicity. It is defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the solution. A solution with a pH of 7 is considered neutral, while a solution with a pH less than 7 is acidic and a solution with a pH greater than 7 is basic.
The sensitivity of the pH electrode is affected by the temperature of the solution being measured, as well as the type of membrane and reference electrode used. To ensure accurate readings, it is important to calibrate the pH electrode regularly and to use it within its specified temperature range.
pH electrodes are used in a variety of applications, including water treatment, food processing, and biomedical research. They are an important tool for monitoring and controlling the pH of solutions, as pH can have a significant impact on the chemical reactions that occur in these systems.